[1] 
L. O. Schwen.
Composite Finite Elements for Trabecular Bone Microstructures.
Dissertation, University of Bonn, 2010. [ bib  .pdf 1 ] In many medical and technical applications, numerical simulations need to be performed for objects with interfaces of geometrically complex shape. We focus on the biomechanical problem of elasticity simulations for trabecular bone microstructures. The goal of this dissertation is to develop and implement an efficient simulation tool for finite element simulations on such structures, socalled composite finite elements. We will deal with both the case of material/void interfaces (complicated domains) and the case of interfaces between different materials (discontinuous coefficients). In classical finite element simulations, geometric complexity is encoded in tetrahedral and typically unstructured meshes. Composite finite elements, in contrast, encode geometric complexity in specialized basis functions on a uniform mesh of hexahedral structure. Other than alternative approaches (such as e.g. fictitious domain methods, generalized finite element methods, immersed interface methods, partition of unity methods, unfitted meshes, and extended finite element methods), the composite finite elements are tailored to geometry descriptions by 3D voxel image data and use the corresponding voxel grid as computational mesh, without introducing additional degrees of freedom, and thus making use of efficient data structures for uniformly structured meshes. The composite finite element method for complicated domains goes back to Wolfgang Hackbusch and Stefan Sauter and restricts standard affine finite element basis functions on the uniformly structured tetrahedral grid (obtained by subdivision of each cube in six tetrahedra) to an approximation of the interior. This can be implemented as a composition of standard finite element basis functions on a local auxiliary and purely virtual grid by which we approximate the interface. In case of discontinuous coefficients, the same local auxiliary composition approach is used. Composition weights are obtained by solving local interpolation problems for which coupling conditions across the interface need to be determined. These depend both on the local interface geometry and on the (scalar or tensorvalued) material coefficients on both sides of the interface. We consider heat diffusion as a scalar model problem and linear elasticity as a vectorvalued model problem to develop and implement the composite finite elements. Uniform cubic meshes contain a natural hierarchy of coarsened grids, which allows us to implement a multigrid solver for the case of complicated domains. Besides simulations of single loading cases, we also apply the composite finite element method to the problem of determining effective material properties, e.g. for multiscale simulations. For periodic microstructures, this is achieved by solving corrector problems on the fundamental cells using affineperiodic boundary conditions corresponding to uniaxial compression and shearing. For statistically periodic trabecular structures, representative fundamental cells can be identified but do not permit the periodic approach. Instead, macroscopic displacements are imposed using the same set as before of affineperiodic Dirichlet boundary conditions on all faces. The stress response of the material is subsequently computed only on an interior subdomain to prevent artificial stiffening near the boundary. We finally check for orthotropy of the macroscopic elasticity tensor and identify its axes.
